Reading 8: The Doctor and his Dead Patient

(A Greek Doctor Joke - included for fun)

(The Old Woman and Her Doctor - included for reference)

Fable Versions

Perry Index Fable Name Aesopica Versions Reading Selection
Perry 317 The Doctor and His Dead Patient Chambry 133 version 1 #8 Primary
Perry 317 The Doctor and His Dead Patient Chambry 133 version 2 #8 Optional
Perry 317 The Doctor and His Dead Patient Babrius 75 #8 Advanced
The below fables are included in this reading for reference only
Perry 57 The Old Woman and Her Doctor Chambry 87 version 1 Unassigned
Perry 57 The Old Woman and Her Doctor Chambry 87 version 2 Unassigned
Philogelos The One-eyed Doctor Unavailable ExtraCredit

About the Fable

The fable 'The unskilled doctor' or 'The Quack Doctor' is one of a number of fables about physicians. In it, an unskilled doctor, or quack, Ἰατρὸς ἄτεχνος or Ἰατρὸς ἄπειρος tells a patient to get his things together....'you are about to die.' When the patient (yet living) later sees the impostor, he has a message for him from nobody less than Θάνατος καὶ ὁ Ἅιδης (Chambry) or from Κόρη δὲ χὠ μέγας Πλούτων (Babrius).

This fable, along with a Greek Doctor joke and Perry #57 'The Old Woman and Her Doctor' introduce us to the world of Greek medicine. Greeks were far beyond the Romans in the area of medicine. Galen and Hippocrates are among the very famous Greek physicians. I have included links to various online ancient Greek medince websites, books and articles. The Story of Lucius Horatillavus, a Roman Quack is given below.

Quacks

Quack doctors are nothing new. The dictionary defines quack as 'an untrained person who pretends to be a physician and who dispenses medical advice.' In the Hellenistic world of medicine, there was no 'formal degree' that made one a doctor. So George Bernard Shaw's comment in The Doctor’s Dilemma does not quite apply. Shaw states "The distinction between a quack doctor and a qualified one is mainly that only the qualified one is authorized to sign death certificates, for which both sorts seem to have about equal occasion. "

Plutarch uses the word ἀλαζών to describe a quack doctor. This word is not used in any of our versions. Theἀλαζών was a mountebank who wandered the country with medicines and spells and methods of exorcism which, he claimed, were panaceas for all diseases. We can still see this kind of man in fairs and market-places shouting the virtues of a patent medicine which will act like magic. Then the word went on to widen its meaning until it meant any braggart. A very interesting listing of some of the most famous quacks is written by Barry Baldwin.

Even Socrates feigned 'quackhood'. In the Charmides (ancient Greek Χαρμίδης), a dialogue of Plato, Socrates engages a handsome and popular boy in a conversation about the meaning of sophrosune, a Greek word usually translated into English as "temperance", "self-control", or "restraint". In the dialogue, Socrates, in order to get the boy to 'strip and show his soul' feigns to be a physician ("iatros") because the boy has complained about a headache. Critias suggests that Socrates pretend to know a cure for a headache to lure the boy over.

Pictures

Pictures are wanting for this fable. Some busts of various famous physicians are below.

Bust (statue of head) of Hippocrates Asclepius Bust (statue of head) of Galen
Hippocrates
Asklepios
Galen
     

Further Reading:

Ancient Greek Medicine (part of a website by Michael Lahanas. Go to the Ancient Greece / Science and Technology page and look for 'Ancient Greek Medicine and Psychology'). There is also a Timeline of Greek Medicine, and a page on Medical Instruments.

Outlines of Greek and Roman Medicine by James Sands Elliott 1912. This is an entire book online which gives one an overview of Greek and Roman medical history. An exerpt is given below.

Beyond the House Call: Doctors in Early Byzantine History and Politics by Barry Baldwin
Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 38, Symposium on Byzantine Medicine (1984), pp. 15-19

Sexperts: Amorous Antics of Dubious Docs Throughout the Centuries by Barry Baldwin
(Reprinted with the kind permission of: Stitches, The Journal of Medical Humour) Read this to find stories of quack's even into the modern era (some stories are quite bizaar!).

Images of Physicians in Classical Times by Darrel W. Amundsen (1977)
The Journal of Popular Culture 11 (3), 642–655.

Of Asklepiads, Quacks, and Early Caretakers of the Skin by Sheldon L. Mandel M.D. (1987)
International Journal of Dermatology 26 (9), 610–613.


Texts and Questions

Reading 8 - Primary Reading Chambry 133 Version 1
Notes
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

This anonymous version is a longer variant version from Chambry's first edition.

Ἰατρὸς ἄτεχνος.

[1] Ἰατρὸς ἦν ἄτεχνος. Οὗτος ἀρρώστῳ παρακολουθῶν, πάντων ἰατρῶν λεγόντων αὐτὸν μὴ κινδυνεύειν, ἀλλὰ χρονίσειν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ, οὗτος μόνος ἔφη αὐτῷ πάντα τὰ αὐτοῦ ἑτοιμάσαι· τὴν αὔριον γὰρ οὐκ ὑπερβήσῃ. [2] Ταῦτα εἰπὼν ὑπεχώρησε. Μετὰ χρόνον δέ τινα ἀναστὰς ὁ νοσῶν προῆλθεν, ὠχρὸς καὶ μόλις βαίνων. [3] Ὁ δὲ ἰατρὸς συναντήσας αὐτῷ· Χαῖρε, ἔφη· πῶς ἔχουσιν οἱ κάτω; [4] Κἀκεῖνος εἶπεν· Ἠρεμοῦσι πιόντες τὸ τῆς Λήθης ὕδωρ. [5] Πρὸ ὀλίγου δὲ ὁ Θάνατος καὶ ὁ Ἅιδης δεινῶς ἠπείλουν τοὺς ἰατροὺς πάντας, ὅτι τοὺς νοσοῦντας οὐκ ἐῶσιν ἀποθνῄσκειν, καὶ κατεγράφοντο πάντας. [6] Ἔμελλον δὲ καὶ σὲ γράψαι, ἀλλ' ἐγὼ προσπεσὼν αὐτοῖς καὶ δυσωπήσας, ἐξωμοσάμην αὐτοῖς μὴ ἀληθῆ ἰατρὸν εἶναί σε, ἀλλὰ μάτην διεβλήθης.

[E] [Ὅτι] τοὺς ἀπαιδεύτους καὶ ἀμαθεῖς καὶ κομψολόγους ἰατροὺς ὁ παρὼν μῦθος στηλιτεύει.

 

Questions for Chambry 133 Version 1 (Reading 8 Primary)

Q1 What is the main sense in the word κινδυνεύειν in line 1? Is the sense used here the primary sense of 'running a risk' or a secondary sense?

Q2 The phrase τὰ αὐτοῦ ἑτοιμάσαι is reported speech spoken by the quack doctor to the patient. Should the pronoun αὐτοῦ be written as ἑαυτοῦ? Is either pronoun fine? Which one would you pick? What did the quack actually say?

Q3 What is the patient doing when he προσπεσὼν αὐτοῖς καὶ δυσωπήσας in line 6?

Q4 How would you say ὅτι is used in line 5?

Q5 Decline ἀληθῆ in line 4. Can you explain the -? What does the circumflex accent indicate? What other adjectives end like this?

Q6 Translate the epimythium (line [E]). Is the word στηλιτεύει a common word?

Answers to the questions can be sent directly to Paul Fonck via this link

Chambry published a multivolume edition of the fables for the Belles Lettres series in 1925/6 (Paris). He later revised this into a single volume, omitting hundreds of the fable variants. In addition, the numeration between these two volumes is not consistent. The texts here are taken from the 1925/6 edition, but the numeration follows the standard single volume edition.


Reading 8 - Optional Reading Chambry 133 version 2
Notes
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

Chambry 133 version 2 text

Ἰατρὸς ἄτεχνος.

[1] Ἰατρὸς ἄπειρος ἀρρώστῳ προσελθὼν πάντα πρὸς ταφὴν εὐτρεπίσαι τοῖς πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐκέλευε· τὴν γὰρ αὔριον οὐχ ὑπερβήσεσθαι αὐτόν. [2] Μετὰ δὲ τινα χρόνον ὁ ἀρρωστῶν ἀναστὰς καὶ συναντήσας τῷ ἰατρῷ, ἀσπασίως ὁ ἰατρὸς προσηγόρευσε καὶ πῶς ἔχουσιν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἅιδην ἠρώτα. [3] Ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· Ἠρεμοῦσι πάντες, πλήν γε ὅτι ὁ Θάνατος καὶ ὁ Ἅιδης ἠπείλουν πᾶσι τοῖς ἰατροῖς τὰ ἀνήκεστα, ὅτι τοὺς νοσοῦντας οὐκ ἐῶσιν ἀποθνῄσκειν· ἔγραφον δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπὶ τιμωρίᾳ. [4] Μελλόντων δὲ καὶ σὲ γράψαι, προσπεσὼν αὐτοῖς ἐγὼ καὶ δυσωπήσας ἐξωμοσάμην μὴ εἶναί σε ἀληθῆ ἰατρόν, ἀλλὰ μάτην διεβλήθης

 

Questions for Chambry 133 Version 2 (Reading 8 Optional)

Q1 A number of phrases about time occurd in these fables: [A2-2] Μετὰ δὲ τινα χρόνον,[A1-1] ἀλλὰ χρονίσειν ἐν τῇ νόσῳ, [A1-2] Μετὰ χρόνον δέ τινα, [B3] πάθος μέν ἐστι χρόνιον, [B9] χρόνῳ δ' εκεῖνος ἐκ νόσων ἀνασφήλας προῆλθεν. Translate these phrases. What other words could have been used instead of χρόνος and its derivations?

Q2 How do the words τὰ ἀνήκεστα 'the incurable' fit. Death and Hades are threatening what to whom?

Q3 The actions in the phrase ἔγραφον δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπὶ τιμωρίᾳ appear to be rather formal -- what's going on?

Q4 The end of line 4 includes the phrase ἐξωμοσάμην μὴ εἶναί σε ἀληθῆ ἰατρόν, ἀλλὰ μάτην διεβλήθης; the sentence has a verb of swearing with the statement of oath in the accusative + infinitive. Why then is the word διεβλήθης not also an infinitive? It does not seem to be a participle (note the epsilon δι-ε-βλή-θης) or is it a participle?

Q5 How would you translate this title: Ἰατρὸς ἄτεχνος? Do you think ἄτεχνος should be 'quack'? What other words, if any, could be used as an alternative? What about ἄπειρος?

Answers to the questions can be sent to Paul Fonck via this link.


Reading 8 - Advanced Reading Babrius 75
Notes
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10

B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21

Ἰατρὸς ἦν ἄτεχνος. οὗτος ἀρρώστῳ,
πάντων λεγόντων "μὴ δέδιχθι, σωθήσῃ·
πάθος μέν ἐστι χρόνιον, ἀλλ' ἔσῃ ῥᾴων,"
[ὁ δ' ἀτεχνὴς ἰατρὸς εἶπεν εἰσβαίνων·]
"οὐ συναπατῶ σε" φησίν "οὐδ' ἐνεδρεύω·
ἕτοιμα δεῖ σε πάντ' ἔχειν· ἀποθνῄσκεις·
τὴν αὔριον γὰρ [τὸ] μακρὸν οὐχ ὑπερβήσῃ."
ταῦτ' εἶπε, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν οὐκέτ' εἰσῄει.
χρόνῳ δ' εκεῖνος ἐκ νόσων ἀνασφήλας
προῆλθεν ὠχρός, τοῖς ποσὶν μόλις βαίνων.

ὁ δ' ἰατρὸς αὐτῷ "χαῖρ'" ἔφη συναντήσας,
καὶ πῶς ἔχουσιν οἱ κάτω διηρώτα.
κἀκεῖνος εἶπεν "ἠρεμοῦσι τῆς Λήθης
πίνοντες, ἡ Κόρη δὲ χὠ μέγας Πλούτων
πρώην ἰατροῖς δεινὰ πᾶσιν ἠπείλουν,
ὅτι τοῦς νοσοῦντας οὐκ ἐῶς' ἀποθνῄσκειν.
ἀνέγραφον δὲ πάντας, ἐν δὲ τοῖς πρώτοις
καὶ σὲ γράφειν ἔμελλον· ἀλλ' ἐγὼ δείσας
εὐθὺς προσῆλθον, ἡψάμην τε τῶν σκήπτρων
κἀπώμος' αὐτοῖς, ὅτι σὺ ταῖς ἀληθείαις
ἰατρὸς οὐκ εἶ καὶ μάτην διεβλήθης."

Babrius 75 Questions

Q1How would you decribe the sentence structure of B2-B3? How does it fit into the sentence. To whom does it refer?

  πάντων λεγόντων "μὴ δέδιχθι, σωθήσῃ·
πάθος μέν ἐστι χρόνιον, ἀλλ' ἔσῃ ῥᾴων,"

Q2 The word δέδιχθι is a tough one. Parse it. What are your tips as to how a novice student of Greek would find the proper lemma for this word.

Q3 To what custom does the phrase ἡψάμην τε τῶν σκήπτρων refer? Can you list any other passages in literature that speak of the same action?

Q4 To what does the phrase ἠρεμοῦσι τῆς Λήθης πίνοντες refer?

Q5 The words ἀνέγραφον and γράφειν appear to be used in a special sense in this passage. How would you categorize this usage -- what type of language? Is it 'legaleze'? What go-to book or literature do you go to to get an understanding of Greek legal language?

Q6 The word(s) κἀπώμος' appears to be a crasis of two words (note the smooth breathing). The first word is καὶ, what is the second word?

Q7 The phrase μάτην διεβλήθης may seem weak to some. The author uses it in his final 'punch line'. Did the words μάτην or διεβλήθης confer any 'loaded' meaning in the Greek? (The NT phrase 'raka' comes to mind.) Does any legal language fit into this context?

Answers to the questions can be sent directly to Paul Fonck via this link

Ben E Perry Translation
Once there was a physician who had no skill. When everyone else was saying to one of his patients: "Don't worry; you'll come through safely; your illness is a lingering one, but you'll get better," this quack said: "I'm not deceiving you, nor playing any tricks. You must make all your final preparations now. You are dying. You will not live long beyond tommorrow." Having said this the physician thereafter made him no more visits. In course of time the patient recovereded from his illness and came forth in public, pale and scarcely able to walk. "Hello," said the physician as he met him. "How are the folks getting along down in Hades?" "They're at peace," the other replied, "drinking the water of Lethe. But there's news. Just recently Persephone and mighty Pluto were threatening dire action against all physicians, because they don't allow the sick to die. All were indicted, and among the first they thought of posting you. But I was alarmed; I stepped forward immediately, bent to tought their royal sceptres, and declared on oath that you in truth were no physician and had falsely been defamed."

Translation from Loeb Classical Library: Babrius and Phaedrus p. 93-95, Fable 75 'Mistaken for a Physician'

Ben Perry, Babrius and Phaedrus (Loeb). This edition contains the Greek texts of Babrius, with a facing English translation, and an extensive index covering the Greek and Latin fable tradition. This book is an absolute must for anyone interested in the Aesopic fable tradition. Invaluable.


Reading 8 - Extra Credit Doctor Jokes, The Old Woman
Notes
Apparatus
Translation
Answers
Vocabulary

The Greek Doctor Joke and the Perry 57 fables of The Old Woman and the Doctor are included for purpose of reference, and are not part of the Perry 317 Reading Schedule.

A Greek Doctor Joke

This is an ancient Greek joke in which physician with only one eye asks a patient about his condition by Philogelos(?). Can you translate it?

Δύσκολος ἰατρὸς ἑτερόφθαλμος ἠρώτα νοσοῦντα· πῶς ἔχεις; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· ὁς βλέπεις. ὁ δὲ ἰατρὸς ἔφη· ἐὰν ὡς ἐγὼ βλέπω ἔχηις, τὸ ἥμυσύ σου ἀπέθανεν.

-------------------------------------------------------

Chambry 87 Version 1 The Old Woman and the Doctor

Γραῦς καὶ ἰατρός.

Γυνὴ πρεσβῦτις τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς νοσοῦσα ἰατρὸν ἐπὶ μισθῷ παρεκάλεσεν. Ὁ δὲ εἰσιών, ὁπότε αὐτὴν ἔχριε, διετέλει ἐκείνης συμμυούσης καθ' ἕκαστον τῶν σκευῶν ὑφαιρούμενος. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ πάντα ἐκφορήσας κἀκείνην ἐθεράπευσεν, ἀπῄτει τὸν ὡμολογημένον μισθόν· καὶ μὴ βουλομένης αὐτῆς ἀποδοῦναι, ἤγαγεν αὐτὴν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας. Ἡ δὲ ἔλεγε τὸν μὲν μισθὸν ὑπεσχῆσθαι, ἐὰν θεραπεύσῃ αὐτῆς τὰς ὁράσεις, νῦν δὲ χεῖρον διατεθῆναι ἐκ τῆς ἰάσεως αὐτοῦ ἢ πρότερον· τότε μὲν γὰρ ἔβλεπον πάντα, ἔφη, τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκίας σκεύη, νῦν δ' οὐδὲν ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. Οὕτως οἱ πονηροὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων διὰ πλεονεξίαν λανθάνουσι καθ' ἐαυτῶν τὸν ἔλεγχον ἐπισπώμενοι. 

(variant version from Chambry's first edition)

----------------------------------------

Chambry 87 Version 2 The Old Woman and the Doctor

Γραῦς καὶ ἰατρός.

Γυνὴ γραῦς ἀλγοῦσα τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς εἰσκαλεῖταί τινα τῶν ἰατρῶν ἐπὶ μισθῷ, συμφωνήσασα ὡς, εἰ μὲν θεραπεύσειεν αὐτήν, τὸν ὁμολογηθέντα μισθὸν ωὐτῷ δώσειν, εἰ δὲ μή, μηδὲν δώσειν. Ἐνεχείρησε μὲν οὖν ὁ ἰατρὸς τῇ θεραπείᾳ· καθ' ἡμέραν δὲ φοιτῶν ὡς τὴν πρεσβῦτιν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῇ χρίων, ἐκείνης μηδαμῶς ἀναβλέπειν ἐχούσης τὴν ὥραν ἐκείνην ὑπὸ τοῦ χρίσματος, αὐτὸς ἕν τι τῶν τῆς οἰκίας σκευῶν ὑφαιρούμενος ὁσημέραι ἀπῄει. Ἡ μὲν οὖν γραῦς τὴν ἑαυτῆς περιουσίαν ἑώρα καθ' ἑκάστην ἐλαττουμένην ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον ὡς καὶ τέλος παντάπασιν αὐτῇ θεραπευθείσῃ μηδὲν ὑπολειφθῆναι. Τοῦ δ' ἰατροῦ τοὺς συμφωνηθέντας μισθοὺς αὐτὴν ἀποιτοῦντος, ὡς καθαρῶς βλέπουσαν ἤδη, καὶ τοὺς μάρτυρας παραγαγόντος· Μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν, εἶπεν ἐκείνη, τὰ νῦν οὐδ' ὁτιοῦν βλέπω· ἡνίκα μὲν γὰρ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐνόσουν, πολλὰ τῶν ἐμῶν κατὰ τὴν ἐμαυτῆς ἔβλεπον οἰκίαν· νῦν δ' ὅτε με σὺ βλέπειν φῇς, οὐδ' ὁτιοῦν ἐκείνων ὁρῶ.
Ὁ μῦθος δηλοῖ ὅτι οἱ πονηροὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐξ ὧν πράττουσι λαντάνουσι καθ' ἑαυτῶν τὸν ἔλεγχον ἐπισπώμενοι.

 

1846 CRITICAL APPARATUS

A version of Babrius fables (Greek text; Latin introduction, comments and apparatus) is available on Google books.  It may be freely downloaded as a pdf file (7.1 M) .  You can find the book at http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=TtikmO4PekUC&pg=PA1&dq=babrii#PPR1,M1

The title page is as follows:
BABRII FABULAE AESOPEAE cum FABULARUM DEPERDITARUM FRAGMENTIS.  Recensuit et Breviter Illustravit, Georgius Cornewall Lewis, A.M. Aedis Christi Olim Alcmnus;  Oxonii: Excudrbat Thomas Combr.  Lindini: Impensis Johannis Gul. Parker MDCCCXLVI (1846). Page 116-118 textual notes are as follows:

 

 


Line Numbering and the Structure of Fables

The lines are numbered for collation and reference purposes. The line numbering format is comprised of three elements: Author+Version+Line Identifier: Author = B/C#.1/C#.2/S/A/H for Babrius, Chambry 1, Chambry 2, Syntipas,  Aphthonius or Herodotus; Line Identifier = T/M/#  where  T=Title, P = Promythium, E = Epimythium or  # = Line number (incremental, but not counting the moral or title); The endomythium, the moral 'inside the story, is simply listed as a line number.

Parts of a fable:
Promythium: A moral that comes before the story, so that the reader / listener can properly decode the meaning
Fable Body: the content of the fable, including the endomythium, but not the promythium or epimythiu.
Endomythium: the moral inside the story (listed as a line number)
Epimythium: The moral added at the end of the story to make sure the point of the fable is clear.

 


The Story of Lucius Horatillavus, a Roman Quack

The following account of Lucius Horatillavus, a Roman quack of the time of Augustus, is taken from the British Medical Journal of June 10, 1911, and originated in an article in the Société Nouvelle, written by M. Fernand Mazade:—

"He was a handsome man, and came from Naples to Rome, his sole outfit being a toga made of a piece of cloth adorned with obscene pictures and a small Asiatic mitre. Like many of his kind at that day, he sold poisons and invented five or six new remedies which were more or less haphazard mixtures of wine and poisonous substances. He had the good luck to cure his first patient, Titus Cnœus Leno, who, being a poet, straightway constituted himself the vates sacer of his physician, and induced some of his fashionable mistresses to place themselves under his hands. So profitable was Horatillavus's practice that he is said to have saved 150,000 sesterces in a few months. But for a moment his good fortune seemed to abandon him. A Roman lady, Sulpicia Pallas, died suddenly under his ministrations. This may have been due to his ignorance or carelessness; but he was accused of having poisoned his patient. This event might have been expected to bring his career to an end; but it was not long before he recovered the confidence of the people whom he deluded with his mystical language and promises of cure. He had three methods of treatment, all consisting of baths—hot, tepid, or cold—preceded or followed by the taking of wonder-working medicines. Horatillavus treated every kind of disease, internal and external; he even practised midwifery, which was then in the hands of women. Ten years after he settled in Rome he had accumulated a fortune of some 6,000,000 sesterces. He had a villa at Tusculum, whither he went three times a month; there he led a luxurious life in the most beautiful surroundings, and there his evil fate overtook him. His orchard was his especial pride. One day he found that birds had played havoc with his figs, the like of which were not to be found in Italy. Determined to prevent similar depredations in future, he poisoned the fig trees. Continuing his walk, he plucked fruits of various kinds here and there. While eating the fruit he had culled and drinking choice wine, he put into his mouth a poisoned fig, which he had inadvertently gathered, and quickly died in convulsions. Before passing away, however, he is said to have composed his own epitaph. This M. Mazade believes he has found. It reads: "The manes of Sulpicia Pallas have avenged her. Here lies Lucius Horatillavus, physician, who poisoned himself." If the epitaph is genuine, it is a confession of guilt. The death of the quack by his own poison is a curious Nemesis. The manner of his death proves that it was accidental, as few quacks are bold enough to take their own medicines."

From Outlines of Greek and Roman Medicine by James Sands Elliott 1912 pp. 62-64


 

Additional Tools and Aids to Reading

The LetsReadGreek website has vocabulary and a list of helpful questions and leads on some of the more difficult words.  A little of topical vocabulary for each is included, along with a Latin version, some English versions of the fables and some engravings and carvings from older books.  The LetsReadGreek site requires one to have a unicode Greek compatible font. I've been trying to get the site properly configured, so please be patient.  A note, SPIonic is not adequate, you must have one of the Windows or Mac unicode fonts installed.  Gentium is a wonderful and easy to read font downloadable from the SIL website at http://scripts.sil.org/Gentium_download.

I highly recommend using the Perseus website tools for vocabulary, morphology, texts and grammar.  There is a lot there; however, Aesop is not.  Some of the vocabulary in the fables do not exist in LSJ (but maybe in the supplement).  To use Perseus adequately, one must learn Perseus’ betacode style with variations, for questions see the FAQ.  I also suggest bookmarking the base pages in your browser, or better yet, drag them if you can and put each one onto your browser’s toolbar.   The following online tools can be found on the Perseus website:

Note: If you are using the Perseus site, you must set your Perseus configuration to properly display the Greek. This may be done by clicking on the "Configure Display" on the Perseus Menu and selecting the corresponding Greek format (choose Unicode or Unicode with pre-combined accents).