Lexica (Lexicons) for Students of the Greek NT

There are many different lexicons (bi-lingual dictionaries) of ancient Greek. Some focus on a specific author(s); some focus on a specific time period; others focus on a particular type of literature. The NT Greek student has a wide range of both internet and for-purchase lexicons which are available. This listing lists both for-purchase and for-free lexicons. The best and most up to date lexicon for the NT (which every serious student must have is BDAG 3rd Edition 2001).

General Greek Lexicons NT Greek Lexicons LXX Greek Lexicons English-Greek (reverse) Lexicons

Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ)

BDAG (Bauer-Danker) Schleussner (1822) Woodhouse
Perseus Thayer Lust (2004) G.M. Edwards
University of Chicago Abbott-Smith Muraoka (2009) Louw-Nida
Diogenes Louw & Nida Abbott-Smith* Perseus under Philologic
Harvard Strong   Perseus at Tufts
    *partial BDAG
Intermediate Liddell-Scott-Jones (lsj)   Patristic Lexicon  
Sophocles Lexicon of Hellenistic Greek   Lampe  

 

General Greek Lexicons

Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek

The Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon (LSJ) is the premier Greek classical lexicon. It contains all the entries in the NT, but not all entries in the LXX (the Greek OT) or the patristic fathers. Almost all lexicons on the internet which provide LSJ use the xml database from the Perseus project at the Tufts University which is based on the 1940 edition of LSJ.

The 1996 LSJ Supplement is not part of any online LSJ lexicon. To get the supplement, one must purchase either the print edition of LSJ from Oxford or a digital resource such as Logos Bible Software.

A note of caution about the Perseus LSJ. Not all forms which are valid Greek word forms are listed. If a certain word form is not found, the Perseus database will return "No entry found". This does not mean that the queried word is invalid or ill-formed. It is just not in the present Perseus list of extant forms.

There are several implementations of this lexicon available on the internet.

 

    In one of the most remarkable and useful developments on the internet, the Perseus Site has made available a resource that is in many ways better than the printed version, for here one can often access the web-versions of the texts to which one is referred by the Lexicon.

    The strengths of this implementation are continual updates, a one-click stop-shop approach retreiving links to four different lexicons all in one window. Word frequencies and possible parsings are also available.

    (The old Perseus cgi-bin site and its tools can be found here:[Tufts University] [Berlin Mirror]. The old site is not long for this world.)

     

  • Perseus under Philologic (University of Chicago) [Home Page] [LSJ Page]

    The University of Chicago site implements the data from the Perseus.Tufts site on a different database platform. This platform is quicker, but a little more work for the user. It takes 3 clicks compared to 1 click on Perseus.Tufts to find any give form. In addition, the organization is a little more hidden. As of July 2009, this site has had a major update and is still fairly new - expect continual changes and improvements.

    The advantages of the Perseus on Philologic is that 1) it is faster, 2) it is cleaner, 3) One can see a list of all Greek words by clicking on the name of the LSJ lexicon one a word is queried (a hidden feature), 4) one can get a reverse English-Greek lookup.

     

  • Diogenes LSJ Lexicon

    This implementation of the Perseus LSJ lexicon is part of a downloadable and free-ware program called Diogenes. Diogenes was originally designed to search the TLG (Thesauraus Linguae Graecae) Greek database. Diogenes has both the LSJ Greek lexicon and Lewis/Clark Latin lexicon embedded in the program. One does not need the TLG discs to use the Lexicons. (The Duke papyri database and Packard texts are online and can be used with Diogenes; the TLG database is now only available by subscription.) Once the program is downloaded and installed, select the option "Look up a word in the Dictionary" and query the Greek word or form for which you are looking.

  • Alpheios Project

    This utility links words to the LSJ lexicon. At the current time, the LSJ lexicon is brought up by clicking on an specific word in any text. As of August 2009, this program is still in Beta mode.

  • Harvard University Archimedes implementation of the 1940 LSJ lexicon.

    The Archimedes lexicon has several abililties which were not present in other utilities. One is the Next Word - and Previous Word links. For Archimdes LSJ, one must submit the word in betacode with the correct accents. It does accept lookups in unicode. Lookups in betacode can be submitted missing the breathings or accents, but Archimdes will often show you the wrong entry. Clicking on the next or previous entry usually takes you to the correct enty. Archimedes is great for cutting and pasting lexicon entries. Errors in Perseus' LSJ sometimes cause a good word not to be found; You can crosscheck in Harvard's Archimedes to see if it is in LSJ.

 

Sophocles Hellenistic Lexicon

A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantein Periods from B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100 by E.A. Sophocles This lexicon from the late 19th century is the only secular Greek lexicon of the Hellenistic Dialect. It is listed on Google Books but as of August 2009 has not been released.

 

NT Greek Lexicons

Thayer's Supplemented Greek Lexicon

At Crosswalk.com: This lexicon is “based on Thayer’s and Smith’s Bible Dictionary plus others" and is keyed to the large Kittel and the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. You must install a special font to see the Greek correctly. You can search or browse the lexicon and you can listen to the pronunciation of each word. Joseph Thayer's 1896 A Greek-English lexicon to the New Testament can be found on Google Books. The online Greek & Hebrew's Reader's Bible uses the Thayer's lexicon.

Abbott-Smith

The 2nd Edition of Abbott-Smith's famous A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament was the standard English lexicon of the NT until the translation of Bauer's lexicon. It is available on Google Books.

Louw-Nida

The Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains by Johannes Louw and Eugene Nida (2nd edition, 1989, United Bible Societies) is a lexicon of similar wordgroups (semantic domains). The lexicon is only availabe in print or from one of the major Bible software companies. The list of domains along with their associated Greek words and English glosses can be found at laparola.net/greco. There is an article by Vern S. Poythress (2001, JETS) which compares the BDAG and the Louw-Nida lexicons: Greek lexicography and translation: Comparing Bauer's and Louw-Nida's lexicons

 

BDAG (Bauer, Danker, Arndt and Gingrich)

Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition. Revised and Edited by Frederick William Danker; University of Chicago Press, 2000.

This is the most important lexicon for the study of the New Testament. It is only available by purchase either in print or from a major Bible software company. The latest edition is the 3rd edition published in 2001. A copy of the 2nd edition can be found for about $20. The older 1979 2nd edition is referred to as BAGD; the 2000 3rd edition as BDAG.

Rodney Decker keeps a BDAG page on his NTResources website which contains a list of detialed reviews, links to articles about BDAG, a history of the various editions, pictures of the authors and more. He also has a very important article on "How to use BDAG".

Strong's Greek Dictionary

The Greek Dictionary from Strong's popular Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible is available by Ulrich Peterson. Enter the number, and the gloss with a list of cross references is availalbe.

 

Note: Thayer, Strong, Louw-Nida's domain name and numberlist, and LSJ are simultaneously available at laparola.net/greco when one clicks on a Greek word from a selected passage.

 

LXX Lexicons

There are three lexicons of the Greek Old Testament, called the Septuagint and abbreviated LXX. Neither BDAG or LSJ list all the words in the LXX. None of the English lexicons are in the public domain.

Schleussner

Novus thesaurus philologico-critius sive lexicon in LXX et Reliquos Interpretes Graecos ac Scriptores Apocryphos Veteris Testamenti, original 5 vols., Leipzig, 1820-1821; re-editions, 3 vols, Glasgow, 1822; London, 1829; Turnhout, Brepols, 1995.   For over 150 years, Scheussner's lexicon was the only lexicon of the LXX. It is a Latin-Greek lexicon. Schleussner's main goal was to find the Hebrew word from which the Greek was translated. Schleussner's 3 volumes can be found on Google Books, internet archive and other places. Google novus thesaurus philologico-criticus sive to find the appropriate volume.

Lust

Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Edited by J. Just, E. Eynikel, and K. Hauspie. Revised Edition: American Bible Society 2004. This is the most popular lexicon of the Greek LXX. It is not as complete with forms as is Muraoka, but approaches the LXX as "translation Greek" with an eye on the Hebrew source. It is available at all major Bible Software sights and many booksellers. Review.

Muraoka

Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (2009, Peeters Publishers, ISBN: 978-90-429-2248-8). This is a complete lexicon of the NT and closer to the format of BDAG than Lust's lexicon. It focuses on what a Greek who does not know Hebrew would think the word means. Reviews can be found at the B-Greek ΕΝ ΕΦΕΣΩ Ancient Hebrew Poetry JETS (1st edition)

Abbott-Smith

A Manual Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Abbott-Smith has LXX references for many of the 5800+ Greek NT words and often has the Hebrew associated word.

 

Patristic Lexicons

Patristic Greek Lexicon, Oxford University Press, 1969. This is the only Greek lexicon for Patristic Greek. It is very expensive and is intended to be a supplement to LSJ. It only contains words which have special meaings in the fathers or special call to attention. There is a good review on Amazon.com.

 

English-Greek Lexicons (Reverse Lookup)

Woodhouse English-Greek lexion (Attic)
English-Greek Dictionary of the Attic Languagy by S.C. Woodhouse 1910. The University of Chicago has provided page images of this book which is searchable by entering an English term or part of a word.

G.M. Edwards
An English-Greek Lexicon by G. M. Edwards (second edition, 1914; reprinted 1930). Scanned by the Tim Spalding for AncientLibrary.com. The page images of the text are searchable through a lookup entry box.

Perseus Hopper at Tufts University Reverse Lookup
Select the English-to-[Language] lookup under the General Search Tools, and make sure the language is set to Greek.

Perseus under Philologic LSJ Reverse Lookup

One is able to do reverse lookups on the University of Chicago LSJ lexicon by navigating to the LSJ Dictionary page, and then entering an English word under the "Search the full text of the dictionary" box. That box accepts both Greek and English words. A hidden feature is that when one retreives a set of entries, one can click on the red title "A Greek-English Lexicon" which will then bring up an alphabetical Greek word list. (The only one I know of on the web). There are 85 pages in all; by changing the page number in the querystring, you can navigate the word list.

Louw-Nida Domains

The book or software Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains by Louw and Nida is the best way to look for synomyms and antonyms in the NT. The lexicon is comprised of both a list of similar words and a complementary lexicon with references, citations and explanations. The book was initially designed for use for Bible translators. The laparola.net/greco site provides a reverse lookup of the Louw-nida domains and quick glosses. One must purchase Louw-Nida for full use.

BDAG Reverse lookup (Logos Software)

Some software packages for BDAG allow one to do a search of English words in the electronic BDAG Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition. Revised and Edited by Frederick William Danker; University of Chicago Press, 2000. BDAG costs about $150 US unless on sale.

 

 

 

 

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